Technology Insights Asthma COPD Small Molecules Soft Mist Nebuliser Combination Treatments Low GWP Propellants Triples Biologics 4 Drug Systems? Gene Therapy Dry Powder Delivery B. 1960 Capsule SystemsMontreal Protocol > PowderCapsule SystemsFactory Metered SystemsDevice Metering Systems Kigali 2019 > Powder Liquid Active Delivery b. 1952 PMDI using CFCMontreal 1985 no more CFCIPAC Promotes 134a & 227Breath-Activated pMDICountersPortable Nebulisers Low GWP 152, 1234 Factory Metered MDPI pMDI + Counter pMDI – Press & Breathe Capsule Device & Device Metering MDPI Micronised dry powder is most often the active ingredient form for asthma treatments. Capsule systems require dexterity to use; open-inhale-close MDPl’s are more widely acceptable.Some actives (API) are soluble in HFA so tend to favour the pMDI route, otherwise suspension formulations have to be developed. Liquid metering valve technology using low-GWP propellants is the low-carbon future. DDI breath-activated systems with counters are the most complex delivery DMDI technology electronic mesh nebulisers aside. Return to Technology Insights Asthma is an allergic reaction by the human body to airborne or contact particles. Daily medicinetreatment is required, generally by deposition in the lung, aside from Merck’s tablet. The lungroute for broncho-dilators using active delivery by propellant or portable nebulisers is effectiveupper airway emergency medicine. Inhaler systems are designed to deliver ~100μg in sub 3micron particles to the lung periphery, there crossing the epithelium into the blood stream.